In the middle-range theory of pain, there are multiple concepts incorporated in the theory. The two I will focus on are the balance between analgesia and side effects and non-pharmacological adjuvants.

The balance between analgesia and side effects

The balance between analgesia and side effects is defined as, “Patient satisfaction with relief of pain and relief or absence of side effects. (Peterson, Sandra J., Ph.D., RN et al., 2016, p. 52)”. This concept applies to my current practice Because I constantly have to balance the effects of the medications that I give for comfort during procedures with their side effects and their effects on my patient’s hemodynamics. Without balancing the effects of the analgesia and the medication side effects, there is the potential for harm to my patient.

Non-pharmacological Adjuvants

Nonpharmacological adjuvants are defined as, “Complementary nursing therapies: relaxation, music, imagery, massage, or cold for pain relief. (Peterson, Sandra J., Ph.D., RN et al., 2016, p. 52)” I use nonpharmacological adjuvants in my practice daily. Before each case, I ask my patients if they prefer music during the case as well as what their preferred genre or artist is. This allows the patient control over that aspect of their pain management and allows them to participate in their care.


Peterson, Sandra J., Ph.D., RN, Bredow, Timothy S., Ph.D., RN, & Bredow, Timothy S., Ph.D., RN. (2016). Middle range theories: Application to nursing research and practice (4th ed.). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.[idloc_006.xhtml-itemref]!/4[eid3355]/14[eid3471]/6[eid3476]/4[eid3478]/3:27[l%20a%2Cnd%20]

Number 2 :

Watson’s theory has four major concepts: human being, health, environment/society, and nursing. I will discuss two out of the four concepts.

Human being and Health

Watson theorizes that the human being is to be “a valued person in and of him or herself to be cared for, respected, nurtured, understood and assisted; in general a philosophical view of a person as a fully functional integrated self. The human is viewed as greater than and different from, the sum of his or her parts,” (Petiprin, 2020).

Watson believes curing illness and pursuing health is paramount. However, we need to address it above just a physiological response. In order for health to best outcomes to be achieved, nurses must also take a holistic approach with patients. This involves focusing on a person’s mind, body, and soul. She states that in order for healing to be effective, there needs to be a complete balance of a person’s physical, cognitive, and spiritual self (Petiprin, 2020).

General reference:

Every human being is different. Each person embodies their own unique and unpredictable set of needs. The key is to identify, acknowledge, and appreciate these needs while providing care. In order to have the best outcome possible, individual humans deserve a caring and holistic approach that focuses on the mind, body, and soul. In order to achieve this, the nurse must be in tune with the patient thus providing what each variable requires (Mgbekem et al., 2016).

My clinical practice:

In my FNP role, I believe every human should be viewed not just by generalized presentation, but by their unique self. As I deal with my patients now and in the future, I understand that I need to meet them where they’re at. I need to connect with them on their unique level and based on their humanness, not just my books, diagnosis codes, and protocols. I want to provide the best care possible. I will nurture them to be in control of their care and to educate them to make them aware of all necessary options. In aesthetics, many patients come in with body image disturbance, depression, and anxiety. I need to meet them where they are at and respect and connect with them as humans regarding their overall physical, mental, social, and spiritual concerns.


Mgbekem, M. A., Ojong, I. N., Lukpata, F. E., Armon, M., & Kalu, V. (2016). Middle range theory evaluation: bridging the theory-practice gap. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences22(2), 249.

Petiprin, A. (2020). Jean Watson. Nursing Theory.…