1. Discuss the shift in perspective from mass society theory to limited effects theory. Explain some of the fundamental differences between the two theories. For example, how does each theory view average people and their ability to resist propaganda? How does each view the role of media?

2. Discuss some of the advantages and limitations of empirical studies on the role of media. Why do empirical studies tend to be more cautious and conservative in making assertions about media effects? To what extent has it proved difficult to observe media effects and why?